23 June 2023 | Report

Gender Equality Matters Snap 2022


This report summarises key insights and findings across the three countries, relevant to IW’s work around gender norms and associated behaviours. It draws on statistical significance testing at 95% confidence interval, regression analysis testing for correlations between collective and individual attitudes and behaviors, and segmentation analysis used to identify groups with distinct attitudes on gender roles.

IW works with local partners to positively shift attitudes and practices to support women in the world of work. Partners focus on shifting four key gender norms:

  • Norm 1 (Childcare and Housework): Women’s primary role perceived as career for children and family members, home maker
  • Norm 2 (Breadwinning and Family Income) : Men’s perceived role as primary income earner/ provider for the family
  • Norm 3 (Job segregation): Perceptions that certain job types are more suitable for women and others for men, leading to occupational segregation
  • Norm 4 (Leadership): Perceptions of women as better in supportive roles and men as better leaders

This SNAP 2022 Survey builds upon data already gathered in the SNAP 2018 Survey and adds specific areas of enquiry according to the norms identified above.

Key Insights:

  • What you see in your social circles matters
    • The equality or inequality of one’s own attitudes is linked to* the perception of the equality or inequality of others attitudes (“what I think other people think”). Observations of others’ behaviour (“what I see other people doing”) are moderately linked to one’s own attitudes.
  • What you saw growing up matters
    • Urban millennials who witnessed their parents equally sharing childcare and breadwinning when they were growing up were more likely to practice childcare and breadwinning equality in their own home. For Vietnamese millennials who saw parents practice equality, they were not only more likely to practice equality in their home but also in the way they viewed job segregation and leadership.
  • What you see in media matters
    • Watching progressive media – that is media where women and men are equally seen taking care of children, doing housework and in leadership roles at work – correlates with more equal behaviour for men and women across all gender norms except caregiving in Vietnam, and for all gender norms except breadwinning in the Philippines.

If urban millennials in Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam are going to embrace gender equality, they will need to see others – from their social circles and in the media – embracing gender equality too.


    • What you see matters
    • 2018-2022 Trends
    • COVID and urban millennials
    • Shifts toward equality at home
    • Leadership and job segregation trending stable or more equal
    • Flexwork usage and attitudes by gender
    • Know your segment
    • Support the early majority



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