11 September 2020 | Report

Gender Equality Matters 2020: Social norms, attitudes and practices of urban millennials in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam


This report summarises key insights and findings across the three countries, relevant to IW’s work around gender norms and associated behaviours.  It draws on regression analysis which tested for correlations between collective and individual attitudes and behaviours; as well as segmentation analysis, to enable an understanding of different groups of men and women in each of the three countries, varying by their responses across the four gender norms from traditional to progressive.

The report also compares common data points across SNAP 2018 and SNAP 2020; and identifies some impacts of COVID-19 on millennials’ experience with changes in income earning and housework patterns.

IW works with local partners to positively shift attitudes and practices to support women in the world of work. Partners focus on shifting four key gender norms:

  • Norm 1 (Childcare and Housework): Women’s primary role perceived as carer for children and family members, home maker
  • Norm 2 (Breadwinning and Family Income): Men’s perceived role as primary income earner/provider for the family
  • Norm 3 (Job segregation): Perceptions that certain job types are more suitable for women and others for men, leading to occupational segregation
  • Norm 4 (Leadership): Perceptions of women as better in supportive roles and men as better leaders

This SNAP 2020 Survey builds upon data already gathered in the SNAP 2018 Survey and adds specific areas of enquiry according to the norms identified above.


Key Insights


  • What you see in your social circles matters.
    • The inequality or inequality of others’ attitudes are strongly linked to the equality or inequality of one’s own attitudes. Observations of others’ behaviour are moderately linked to one’s own’s attitudes.
  • What you saw growing up matters
    • Urban millennials who witnessed their parents equally sharing childcare and breadwinning when they were growing up were more likely to practice childcare and breadwinning equality in their own home. For Vietnamese millennials who saw parents practice equality, they were not only more likely to practice equality in their home but also in the way they viewed job segregation and leadership.
  • What you see in media matters
    • Watching progressive media—that is, media where women and men are equally seen taking care of children, doing housework and in leadership roles at work—correlates with more equal behaviour for men and women across all four gender norms in Vietnam and the Philippines and for men in Indonesia on childcare and breadwinning norms.
  • If urban millennials in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam are going to embrace gender equality, they will need to see others – from their social circles and in the media – embracing gender equality too.




  • What you see matters
  • Shifts from 2018 to 2020
  • COVID-19 and urban millennials
  • Gender equality at home on the rise
  • Know your segment
  • Support the early majority


You may also download complementary Detailed Annexes and Designer Toolkits for Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines.


Download Resources Here

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