11 July 2023 | Report

Trends in women’s economic empowerment amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam

Women's Economic Empowerment


This report examines gender norms in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, focusing on changes during the pandemic and their impact on women’s economic empowerment. This study employed a systematic approach to evidence synthesis.

It highlights the rise of digital entrepreneurship among women, shifting attitudes toward girls’ education, and potential caregiving burdens for working-age women due to ageing populations. Women-owned enterprises showed resilience during the pandemic, but unpaid care work and limited access to collateral remain challenges.

While some positive shifts in gender norms are noted, more efforts are needed to address structural barriers and create lasting change. Prioritizing women’s digital entrepreneurship and unpaid care work can help promote women’s economic participation and growth in these countries.


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Published by: Investing in Women

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