7 December 2023 |

Gender Equality in Recruitment and Promotion Practices in Vietnam


The Gender Equality in Recruitment and Promotion Practices in Vietnam report from the International Labour Organization and Navigos Search analyses the presence of gender-based discrimination practices in Vietnamese workplaces.

Researchers conducted a review of 12,300 job advertisements in the country’s four largest job portals, as well as two online surveys – one with employers in the private sector and the other with candidates for mid-career posts. The research aimed to discover whether gender-based discrimination exists in hiring practices, working conditions and promotion opportunities in the workplace.



  • Progress has been made in developing a supportive legal framework.
  • Gender-based discrimination leads to occupational and vertical segregation.
  • Balancing family burdens to improve women’s job prospects and business performance.
  • Gender-sensitive business environment must be a priority.
  • Discrimination-free workplace supports both gender equality and business success.


  • Gender-based discrimination in the workplace is prohibited through a number of legal documents. The 2012 Labour Code protects “the female employees’ right to work on the basis of equality” and requires employers to “ensure the implementation of gender equality and measures to promote gender equality in recruitment, employment, training, working hours and rest periods, wages and other policies”.
  • While job advertisements should avoid any mention of gender as this represents a direct form of gender-based discrimination, the relevant data has indicated that such a practice is still common in Vietnam. By doing so, the qualifications and competencies requested for the post tend to be subordinate to gender-based prejudices.
  • Seventy per cent of job advertisements in Vietnam specifically requested that the positions be filled by men, according to a review of 12,300 job advertisements posted on the four largest job portals between mid-November 2014 and mid-January 2015.
  • Men were often most targeted for more technical and highly skilled jobs, with 97% of information technology jobs specifying that they were for men, as well as jobs that require more outdoor activities, with 100% of ads for architect jobs requiring male applicants.
  • Women were often preferred for office and support work, with 95% of ads for receptionist jobs specifying a preference for female applicants.

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