australian-aid-white-2
Follow us on:

Published by: OECD Development Centre, 2014

Country / Region: Regional/global

Social Institutions & Gender Index 2014 Synthesis Report

30 November 2014

The Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI) 2014 Synthesis Report from the OECD ranks 108 countries according to the level of discrimination (very low, low, medium, high, or very high) against women and girls in social institutions. The index covers five areas:

  • discriminatory family code;
  • restricted physical integrity;
  • son bias;
  • restricted resources and assets;
  • restricted civil liberties.

These dimensions look at the gaps between women and men in terms of rights and opportunities as reflected in legislation, practices and attitudes. Capturing the gender differences in these key areas provides a clearer vision of how they shape women’s lives. The SIGI shows that reducing and eliminating the gender gaps in social institutions is critical for establishing an environment that enables women and girls to fully benefit from social and economic empowerment opportunities.

Gender gaps in social institutions translate into gender gaps in development outcomes such as inter alia, the labour force, level of poverty and marginalisation, education, vulnerability to violence, and public leadership positions. This report gives examples of the correlations between discriminatory social institutions and key development outcomes.

Highlights

  • The East Asia and the Pacific region is characterised by comprehensive legislative frameworks protecting women’s rights; however their implementation and weak institutional structures continue to hold back progress. Overall, moves toward gender equality are slow or patchy, particularly regarding civil liberties, secure access to land, violence against women and political voice, which are serious issues of concern for the region.
  • Countries in East Asia and the Pacific that have significantly reduced gender-based discrimination have done so by strengthening existing laws or creating new ones (e.g. Viet Nam), introducing joint titling schemes to boost women’s land ownership rights (e.g. Cambodia) and providing specialised services to facilitate women’s access to justice (e.g. Mongolia). In addition, some countries have established action plans to promote gender equality (e.g. Mongolia and Viet Nam). Significant gaps remain in legislation, implementation, community awareness and women’s legal literacy, which require urgent attention and concerted coordination between the region’s decision makers, civil society organisations and women’s rights networks.
  • The numbers of missing women have fallen since 2012. Although the unequal sex ratio remains alarming, considerably fewer women are missing in Papua New Guinea and the People’s Republic of China. The only country in the region demonstrating an increase in the number of missing women is the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.
  • Women’s status and decision-making authority within the family paint a mixed picture, mainly due to conflict between customary, religious and civil laws (e.g. Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore). Attitudes accepting domestic violence are prevalent across the region and peak in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and in Timor Leste (over 80%). In some countries, marital rape is still not recognised (e.g. Cambodia and Mongolia). A number of national family and civil codes maintain men as the only head of household (e.g. Philippines), which reduces women’s decision-making authority over household assets and family well-being. This also compromises women’s and girls’ rights to inherit, own, and control land and property, as well as restricts their freedom of movement.
  • Negative stereotypes and traditional perceptions of women’s roles cut across the region in public life as well, inhibiting women’s empowerment. The majority of the region’s countries have no quotas for women in politics at either the national or sub-national level (e.g. Fiji, the People’s Republic of China, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam), thus perpetuating low levels of women’s political leadership.

Contents

  • The SIGI
    • Introduction
    • Key messages
    • Description of the SIGI and its sub-indices
    • Key results
    • SIGI classification
  • Understanding development processes through the SIGI
    • SIGI and development outcomes
    • Thematic analyses
  • Regional analyses
    • OECD countries
    • East Asia and the Pacific
    • Eastern Europe and Central Asia
    • Latin America and the Caribbean
    • Middle East and North Africa
    • South Asia
    • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Annex
    • Methodology
    • SIGI 2014 framework: Variables and coding
    • Country scores according to the SIGI and its sub-indices
  • Notes
  • References

Report: Determinants of Female Labour Force Participation in the Philippines

A study released by the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation in the Philippines, has identified the factors affecting the decreasing participation of Filipino women in the workforce.

Examining the Women’s Low Labor Market Participation Rate in the Philippines: Is Housework the Missing Link?

This paper looks into the role of women’s housework and discusses the role of housework on men’s market work in the Philippines.

State of the Worlds Fathers 2019: Unlocking the Power of Men’s Care

The third State of the World’s Fathers report reveals new research on men’s caregiving from 11 countries, with additional cross-country analysis of data from over 30 countries.

Expanding paternity leave in South East Asia

The business case for paternity leave is also compelling. The benefits of paternity leave extend to parents, children and business.

Paternity Leave in Myanmar

This fact sheet discusses the benefits of paternity leave, the state of paternity leave in Myanmar and the policy challenges that are preventing the advancement paternity leave in the country.

Paternity Leave in Vietnam

This fact sheet discusses the benefits of paternity leave, the state of paternity leave in Vietnam and the policy challenges that are preventing the advancement paternity leave in the country.

Paternity Leave in Indonesia

This fact sheet discusses the benefits of paternity leave, the state of paternity leave in Indonesia and the policy challenges that are preventing the advancement paternity leave in the country.

Paternity Leave in the Philippines

This fact sheet discusses the benefits of paternity leave, the state of paternity leave in the Philippines and the policy challenges that are preventing the advancement paternity leave in the country.

Shifting millennial gender norms: Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines

Despite persistent gender inequalities in all three countries, Investing in Women’s  survey data reveals that within this demographic there are many positive gender perceptions that can be leveraged to advocate for greater norm shifts: Women and men show similar levels of ambition to reach senior positions.

Counting Women’s Work in the Philippines

The value of women’s unpaid work in the Philippines is worth trillions of pesos, according to a senior research fellow of the country’s premier think tank Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS).

Women in the Philippine C-Suite

This report explains the 4 key interplaying factors – individual, family, corporation culture and societal pressures – that puts a pressure to the rise of women in the corporate ladder.

AdReaction: Getting Gender Right

This report delivers new insights into the role of gender in brand strategy, creative response and media targeting, and includes analysis of consumer responses to tens of thousands of brands, campaigns and ads, as well as a global survey of marketers.

East Asia Forum Quarterly Vol.11 No.1: Investing in Women

This issue of EAFQ touches on key economic and social questions that affect gender equality in Southeast Asia and East Asia, delving beneath the aggregates and measurement challenges.

Catalytic Capital for Women’s Economic Empowerment: Report of the External Review of Component 2 of the Investing in Women Initiative

This report summarises the findings and recommendations of the external review of Component 2 (C2) on impact investing of the Investing in Women Initiative (IW) funded by Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT).

Investing in Women Phase 2 Investment Design Document Update

This updated Investment Design Document for Investing in Women reflects the opportunities and constraints of the evolving operational environments; the policy and budgetary settings of the Australian Government; and the lessons from Phase 1 implementation as identified through an independent Review process.

The Global Gender Gap Index Report 2018

This report benchmarks national gender gaps on economic, education, health and political criteria, and provides country rankings that allow for effective comparisons across regions and income groups.

 

Game changers: Women and the Future of Work in Asia and the Pacific

This report examines the situation of women in Asia and the Pacific and analyses progress and obstacles in terms of gender equality in the world of work.

Women, Work and Care (Indonesia)

This report summarises the current situation of women in Indonesia and discusses how family responsibilities are holding women back in the workplace.

Care work and care jobs for the future of decent work

This report takes a comprehensive look at unpaid and paid care work and its relationship with the changing world of work. A key focus is the persistent gender inequalities in households and the labour market, which are inextricably linked with care work.

Care work and care jobs for the future of decent work: Key findings in Asia and the Pacific

This report takes a comprehensive look at unpaid and paid care work in Asia and the Pacific and its relationship with the changing world of work. A key focus is the persistent gender inequalities in households and the labour market, which are inextricably linked with care work.

The power of parity: Advancing women’s equality in Asia Pacific

This report from the McKinsey Global Institute explores the challenge of gender inequality in Asia Pacific and considers what it will take to deliver gender parity in the region.

Gender Gap in Earnings in Vietnam: Why Do Vietnamese Women Work in Lower Paid Occupations?

This report analyses the gender earnings gap in Vietnam and explores why women choose to work in lower paid occupations.

Entrepreneurship Development Interventions for Women Entrepreneurs

This report presents key findings of interventions promoting small and medium enterprises as a means to create more and better jobs.

APEC Gender Inclusion Guidelines

This report offers guidance on how to integrate gender-responsive approaches into APEC Fora, Strategic and Work Plans, Annual Reports and Projects. It complements the principles outlined in the 1999 Framework for the Integration of Women in APEC.

Filipino women in leadership: Government and industry

This report presents current statistics on representation of women in key leadership positions in the Philippine government and industry. It reveals a dearth of female representation and discusses recommendations to address this.

The Global Gender Gap Report 2017

The report benchmarks 144 countries on their progress towards gender parity and provides country rankings that allow for effective comparisons across regions and income groups.

Women-owned enterprises in Vietnam: Perceptions and potential

This report exposes misconceptions facing women entrepreneurs in Vietnam and elucidates the opportunities for banks and related service providers to meet their needs.

Strengthening Women’s Entrepreneurship in ASEAN

This report analyses the policy landscape, identifies gaps, and proposes recommendations to advance the role of women in the labour market, as entrepreneurs and business owners, presenting best practice examples from both the ASEAN region and the OECD.

State of the World’s Fathers 2017: Time for Action

This report presents a global overview of trends related to equal caregiving and provides a synthesis of global data sources on related topics including unpaid care work, sexual and reproductive health and rights, maternal health, men’s violence against women, and child development.

World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends for women 2017

This report examines the global and regional labour market trends and gaps, including in labour force participation rates, unemployment rates, employment status as well as sectoral and occupational segregation.

Feminism And Gender Equality Around The World

This report provides an overview of the state of feminism and gender equality around the world based on survey results from across 24 countries.

Towards a better future for women and work: Voices of women and men

This report provides a first-ever account of global attitudes and perceptions of women and men regarding women and work, based on the 2016 Gallup World Poll.

Work and Economic Participation in the Philippines

This factsheet from the Philippine Statistics Authority focuses on the latest statistical updates on women and men in the country. The 2017 edition contains 84 indicators covering 14 socio-economic sectors and gender concerns.

Globalization and Social Change: Gender-Specific Effects of Trade Liberalization in Indonesia

This report looks into the gender-specific effects of trade liberalisation on work participation and hours of work, as well as primary participation in domestic duties in Indonesia.

Towards Gender Equality in Vietnam: Making Inclusive Growth Work for Women

This report examines Vietnam’s economy through a gender lens, analysing the distribution of productive resources across different groups of women and men; gender segmentation in the labour market; and female workers’ working conditions and pay.

Women and Men in the Philippines

This report is the fourth in a series of statistical handbooks and presents the available and relevant gender statistics in the Philippines from 2000 to 2015.

Closing the gender pay gap: A review of the issues, policy mechanisms and international evidence

This report reviews the key issues, policy mechanisms and international evidence with respect to closing the gender pay gap. The core focus is on wage setting institutions and their impact on inclusive and gender equitable labour markets.

Gender Diversity in Boards and Performance of Philippine Publicly Traded Firms: Do Women Matter?

This article examines this board-level gender diversity issue for the case of the firms traded in the Philippine Stock Exchange during the period 2003 to 2014.

Social Determinants of Gender Inequality in Vietnam

This report addresses the question of why progresses has been so slow on gender equality in Vietnam, exploring the challenges and barriers that hinder the efforts in bridging the gap between genders.

Women at Work Trends 2016

This report provides the latest data on women’s position in labour markets, examines the factors behind these trends and explores the policy drivers for transformative change.

The “Gender Pension-Gap” in the Aging Societies of East Asia: A Policy Note from the East Asia and Pacific Umbrella Facility for Gender Equality

This report presents findings from a review of pension policies and their gender dimensions in eight countries of the East Asia region where the aging of the population is already advanced or expected to accelerate in coming years.

Gender in the Midst of Reforms: Attitudes to Work and Family Roles among University Students in Urban Indonesia

This report explores attitudes to work and family roles among senior university students in 2004; the year when people were preparing to elect a President directly for the first time in history, with the incumbent President the first woman in the role.

Women in business and management: Gaining momentum in Asia and the Pacific

This report brings together the most recent statistics, trends and information on the situation of women in business and management in order to provide insight into practicalities, realities and understandings of companies in the Asia-Pacific region.

Women in the Workforce: An Unmet Potential in Asia and the Pacific

This report looks into the complex and varied causes behind the gap in economic empowerment between males and females across Asia and the Pacific, then analyses the available evidence for its implications to economic growth.

The motherhood pay gap: A review of the issues, theory and international evidence

This report provides a detailed review of the issues, theory and evidences around the pay gap between mothers and non-mothers, and between mothers and fathers. The motherhood pay gap is distinct from the gender pay gap, which measures the pay gap between all women and all men in the workforce.

Women in Business and Management: Gaining momentum

This report brings together available data and statistics to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date and global picture of women in the business world and in management positions.

New Evidence on the Gender Wage Gap in Indonesia

This report explores how Indonesia’s economic growth and rapid urbanisation in recent years is contributing to the gender income gap. The study examines how monthly wages are distributed between male and female workers and tests whether a wage gap exists between them.

Gender Equality in the Labor Market in the Philippines

This report documents the nature and extent of gender inequalities in the Filipino labour market. The report also shares promising initiatives that have been developed to counter gender discrimination and promote equality for working men and women.

Gender Division of Household Labor in Vietnam

This study explores the extent of change and regional differences in gender roles in the Vietnamese family based on innovative surveys in northern and southern Vietnam.

Women, Work and Care (Philippines)

This report summarises the current situation of women in the Philippines and discusses their dual responsibilities in the family and the workplace.

Is Gender Diversity Profitable? Evidence from a Global Survey

This report examines the impact of gender diversity on corporate performance. It uses a global dataset of firms to analyse this correlation.

Women’s Economic Empowerment Framework

This report provides a framework for monitoring Investing in Women’s contribution to the goal of accelerating women’s economic empowerment in Southeast Asia and contributing to inclusive economic growth.

Aid flows and women and work in South East Asia

This report analyses aid flows to Southeast Asia, and the degree to which overseas development funding is spent on projects promoting women’s economic empowerment.

Stories of women-owned enterprises: Tòhe (Vietnam)

This report showcases Tòhe: a woman-owned social enterprise in Vietnam. The case study tells the story of the business and explores the success and challenges it faces.

International standards on women and work in Myanmar

This report provides an overview of the international standards on women and work, and explores to what extent they have been implemented in Myanmar.

Subscribe to our newsletter

COPYRIGHT 2019. INVESTING IN WOMEN.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Abt Privacy Policy

Managed by: abt-logo
to top