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Outside Looking In: Gendered Perspectives in Work and Education

Philippine Institute for Development Studies


The Philippines


Gender equality Gender gap Gender norms Workplace Gender Equality Influencing gender norms Unpaid work

Outside Looking In: Gendered Perspectives in Work and Education

Outside Looking In: Gendered Perspectives in Work and Education

Despite continuous efforts to advance gender equality in the Philippines, there are still gender gaps in the country’s education and employment systems. Unless they are addressed, such gaps can undermine previous achievements. Published by the Philippine Institute for Development Studies, this book presents research on the apparent lag in the education of boys, the gender differences in educational mobility, the important roles of housework in the economy, the effects of nonmarket work such as housework on labour market participation, and the gender pay gap in agriculture. It underscores challenges faced by women and men in pursuit of proper education and employment.



  • Female functional literacy rate is higher in the Philippines. The consistent underperformance of boys is not unique to the Philippines since reversals are also observed worldwide.
  • The apparent lag in the education of boys has raised concerns among various stakeholders.
  • There is a need for a nuanced understanding of the reasons why boys are underperforming in education.
  • The reversal of the fortune of boys in the education front has already been predicted even before the 1970s. Factors to this reversal include social expectations, intergenerational transfers, and employment opportunities.
  • Despite the good fortune of girls and women in the education front, they are faced with persistent challenges. One such challenge is their low labour force participation rate.
  • Data indicate that a large percentage of women survey respondents have cited housework as the reason for not looking for work. Housework, nonmarket work, unpaid care work, or reproductive work becomes a social issue to the extent that it positively impacts the well-being of household members but adversely affects the productive work of those who perform the household tasks.
  • The contribution of both genders to the economy is closer to parity when housework is accounted for.
  • There is a strong association between parental time and child schooling outcomes, a result consistent with a growing evidence that one of housework’s important contributions is to nurture both the current and future generations.
  • Women can face starkly contrasting realities in their homes with some doing unpaid work by choice and free will while others are forced to do so by lack of other options.
  • There are work-life tensions generated by the productive and reproductive roles, and once they join the market work, women are confronted by pay gap.
  • There is a need for disaggregated data collected at regular intervals to analyse the dynamics that occur in the family, discern critical inputs to learning, and advocate innovative policies to address work-life tensions and gender pay gap.



  • List of Tables, Figures, and Appendixes
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgment
  • List of Acronyms
  • Chapter 1
    • Introduction
  • Chapter 2 – Gender Equity in Education: Helping the Boys Catch Up
    • Introduction
    • Historical data on Philippine education
    • Recognising gender bias against boys
    • Gender equity across income groups
    • Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program and gender equality
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Appendix
  • Chapter 3 – Understanding the Educational Mobility of Men and Women and the Schooling Progression of Boys and Girls in the Philippines
    • Introduction
    • The 2010 CPH: Some useful patterns
    • Empirical strategy in assessing the effects of parental education on offspring’s educational outcomes
    • Discussion of results
    • Summary and concluding remarks
    • References
    • Appendix
  • Chapter 4 – Counting Women’s Work in the Philippines
    • Introduction
    • Work over the economic life cycle
    • Counting men’s and women’s work
    • Beyond monetary valuation
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Appendix
  • Chapter 5 – Examining women’s low labour market participation rate in the Philippines: Is housework the missing link?
    • Introduction
    • Women in the Philippines: Background on policies and history
    • Market and nonmarket work: Review of related literature
    • Empirical strategy and data sources
    • Discussion of results
    • Summary and conclusions
    • References
    • Appendix
  • Chapter 6 – The Wage Gap Between Male and Female Agricultural Workers
    • Introduction
    • Method of the study
    • Gender issues in Philippine agriculture
    • Decomposition analysis of gender wage gap
    • Conclusion
    • References
  • The Authors


This book was originally published on the PIDS website.

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