This issue of EAFQ touches on key economic and social questions that affect gender equality in Southeast Asia and East Asia, delving beneath the aggregates and measurement challenges.
Published by: Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal Association, 2001
Country / Region: Vietnam
Gender Equality and Women’s Issues in Vietnam: The Vietnamese Woman — Warrior and Poet
The Gender Equality and Women’s Issues in Vietnam: The Vietnamese Woman-Warrior and Poet article provides a detailed analysis of “Vietnamese feminism”, and explores the concept of a positive collective identity of Vietnamese women – something with which all Vietnamese women can identify regardless of locale, generation, or ideology.
The article traces what is inherent in the Vietnamese culture on the role and aspiration of its women through the ages, and explores the developmental path for advocating gender equality in Vietnam. The article argues that there exists in the Vietnamese heritage evidence of a positive collective identity urging Vietnamese women to take the lead in society and to resist gender and social injustice.
- The article argues that, to advocate gender equality in Vietnam, it is necessary to revitalise and capitalise on cultural identity. For Vietnamese women to make a step forward from the nostalgic past uncovered herein, the advocacy of gender equality in Vietnam must necessarily include two inseparable steps: (1) the eradication of gender inequality in all aspects of life, and (2) the improvement of the living conditions of Vietnamese women, whether or not the agenda is set in the context of gender disparity. In other words, equality cannot mean “equality in poverty” and misery.
- Any women’s movement in Vietnam today must be cast as the revitalisation of the Vietnamese woman’s collective cultural identity, rather than as a Western imported feminist doctrine. The Vietnamese woman’s collective cultural identity is based on the history and cultural folklores of Vietnam, including expressions of feminist ideas in law and literature, and a long history of warfare and collective sufferings, wherein women have been seen as martyrs, national treasures, and labourers in war and in peace.
- The advocacy of gender equality in Vietnam today is limited by eight “risk factors.”
- First, Vietnam’s strong matriarchal heritage that persisted through its early history has at times led to the disingenuous proposition that Vietnam has no need for a feminist movement.
- Second, Vietnam’s repetitive, prolonged war and poverty have together overshadowed gender issues.
- Third, women’s movements in Vietnam have not evolved into a doctrine with a structured basis that is independent from nationalism, socialism, or literary movements.
- Fourth, gender equality in Vietnam has become entangled in what this Article describes as the “fallacy of a trio,” in which gender equality becomes synonymous with nationalism and socialism.
- Fifth, the rule of law in Vietnam has traditionally been considered secondary to customs derived from the oppressive values of Vietnamese Confucian society and the autonomy of the Vietnamese agricultural villages.
- Sixth, women’s rights advocacy has been caught up in the “universality versus cultural relativism” discussion, further complicated by the question of whether there should be “Asian-styled gender rights” in Vietnam. Seventh, Vietnam, despite its age, is a new nation with a wide variety of philosophical bases, legal traditions, and paradoxical values.
- Finally, the single-party political system of modem Vietnam renders any feminist movement susceptible to Party politics.
- While the reassertion of cultural identity can effectively empower Vietnamese women, the feminist advocate must approach cultural identity with caution in order to avoid the semantic traps of euphemism, empty ethnocentricsm, and unhealthy preoccupation with the past that can impede progress for the future.
- THE CONCEPTUAL AND DEFINITIONAL FRAMEWORK OF FEMINISM FOR A STUDY OF VIETNAM
- Defending the Esoteric Cultural Approach
- Elements that Define Common Objectives and Bind the Vietnamese Advocate to the International Feminist Community
- Developing a Vietnamese Agenda and Methodology Independent of Western Doctrines
- VIETNAM: BACKGROUND-THE COUNTRY, LAW, POLITICS, AND WOMEN
- The Old Country-The Vietnamese Woman and the Myths of Origin
- Mother Vietnam- Who Are You?
- Early Feminist Literature of Vietnam
- Economic Transition Under the Doi Moi Policy-A New Nation, New Constitution, and New Laws-But What Has Happened to Women?
- The Socio-Economic Status of Vietnamese Women in the 1990s
- Legal Rights for Women in Vietnam and Gender Justice
- Impediments to Gender Equality Under the Vietnamese System
- ADVOCATING GENDER EQUALITY IN VIETNAM: THE EIGHT RISK FACTORS
- First Factor: The Lack of a Gender Battle in Vietnam’s Early History
- Second Factor: The Overshadowing Experiences of Repetitive, Prolonged
- Third Factor: Vietnam’s Lack of a Feminist Doctrine Independent from Nationalist, Socialist, or Literary Movements
- Fourth Factor: Nationalism, Socialism, and Gender Equality-Fallacy of the “Trio”
- Fifth Factor: Rule of Law versus Communal Custom
- Sixth Factor: The Entanglement of Women ‘s Rights in the Spiderweb of the “Universal Human Rights Versus Asian Values” Debate
- Seventh Factor: An Unsettled Mixture of Ideologies, Legal Traditions, and Paradoxical Values in Vietnam
- Eighth Factor: NPA 2000 as an Example of the Constraints of Party Politics
- CONCLUSION: THE RHETORIC OF EMPOWERMENT AND THE INSPIRATIONAL ROLE OF AN ADVOCATE
Investing in Women Phase 2 Investment Design Document Update
This updated Investment Design Document for Investing in Women reflects the opportunities and constraints of the evolving operational environments; the policy and budgetary settings of the Australian Government; and the lessons from Phase 1 implementation as identified through an independent Review process.
Work for a Brighter Future Report 2018 – ILO
This report portrays the urgency of the changes that the world of work is facing, and provides ideas on how to manage and leverage these transformations. It considers how to strengthen democratic space for social dialogue and how business models can be better aligned with a human-centred agenda.
The Global Gender Gap Index Report 2018
This report benchmarks national gender gaps on economic, education, health and political criteria, and provides country rankings that allow for effective comparisons across regions and income groups.
Women, Work and Care (Indonesia)
This report summarises the current situation of women in Indonesia and discusses how family responsibilities are holding women back in the workplace.
The power of parity: Advancing women’s equality in Asia Pacific
This report from the McKinsey Global Institute explores the challenge of gender inequality in Asia Pacific and considers what it will take to deliver gender parity in the region.
Gender Gap in Earnings in Vietnam: Why Do Vietnamese Women Work in Lower Paid Occupations?
This report analyses the gender earnings gap in Vietnam and explores why women choose to work in lower paid occupations.
APEC Economic Policy Report on Structural Reform and Human Capital Development
This report discusses some of the issues and policies relating to skills development and labour markets in the APEC region. It analyses how economic changes can contribute to structural unemployment, and what can be done to mitigate the impacts of these changes.
Filipino women in leadership: Government and industry
This report presents current statistics on representation of women in key leadership positions in the Philippine government and industry. It reveals a dearth of female representation and discusses recommendations to address this.
The Global Gender Gap Report 2017
The report benchmarks 144 countries on their progress towards gender parity and provides country rankings that allow for effective comparisons across regions and income groups.
Feminism And Gender Equality Around The World
This report provides an overview of the state of feminism and gender equality around the world based on survey results from across 24 countries.
Work and Economic Participation in the Philippines
This factsheet from the Philippine Statistics Authority focuses on the latest statistical updates on women and men in the country. The 2017 edition contains 84 indicators covering 14 socio-economic sectors and gender concerns.
Women and Men in the Philippines
This report is the fourth in a series of statistical handbooks and presents the available and relevant gender statistics in the Philippines from 2000 to 2015.
Closing the gender pay gap: A review of the issues, policy mechanisms and international evidence
This report reviews the key issues, policy mechanisms and international evidence with respect to closing the gender pay gap. The core focus is on wage setting institutions and their impact on inclusive and gender equitable labour markets.
Gender Diversity in Boards and Performance of Philippine Publicly Traded Firms: Do Women Matter?
This article examines this board-level gender diversity issue for the case of the firms traded in the Philippine Stock Exchange during the period 2003 to 2014.
Social Determinants of Gender Inequality in Vietnam
This report addresses the question of why progresses has been so slow on gender equality in Vietnam, exploring the challenges and barriers that hinder the efforts in bridging the gap between genders.
The “Gender Pension-Gap” in the Aging Societies of East Asia: A Policy Note from the East Asia and Pacific Umbrella Facility for Gender Equality
This report presents findings from a review of pension policies and their gender dimensions in eight countries of the East Asia region where the aging of the population is already advanced or expected to accelerate in coming years.
Gender in the Midst of Reforms: Attitudes to Work and Family Roles among University Students in Urban Indonesia
University-educated Indonesian women are expected to generate additional income for the family as ‘secondary earners’ by choosing a career path that does not interfere with their primary roles as wives and mothers.
Policies advocating more egalitarian marriage roles would ultimately lead to more equitable outcomes in the labour market.
The motherhood pay gap: A review of the issues, theory and international evidence
This report provides a detailed review of the issues, theory and evidences around the pay gap between mothers and non-mothers, and between mothers and fathers. The motherhood pay gap is distinct from the gender pay gap, which measures the pay gap between all women and all men in the workforce.
Maternity Protection in SMEs: An international review
This review provides a detailed analysis of the key international literature on the outcomes of maternity protection in small and medium-sized enterprises, and addresses how maternity protection in SMEs can generate positive outcomes for enterprises as well as broader society.
New Evidence on the Gender Wage Gap in Indonesia
This report explores how Indonesia’s economic growth and rapid urbanisation in recent years is contributing to the gender income gap. The study examines how monthly wages are distributed between male and female workers and tests whether a wage gap exists between them.
Estimating the Costs of Domestic Violence Against Women in Viet Nam
This report aims to provide a reliable estimate of the economic costs of domestic violence in Viet Nam, including potential opportunity and productivity loss to the national economy.
Gender Division of Household Labor in Vietnam
This study explores the extent of change and regional differences in gender roles in the Vietnamese family based on innovative surveys in northern and southern Vietnam.
Myanmar Country Context Paper
This country context paper provides an overview of women’s contribution to Myanmar’s economy as farmers, entrepreneurs and wage workers, and identifies key barriers to women’s economic empowerment in Myanmar.
Vietnam Country Context Paper
This country context paper provides an overview of women’s contribution to Vietnam’s economy as farmers, entrepreneurs and wage workers, and identifies key barriers to women’s economic empowerment in Vietnam.
Indonesia Country Context Paper
This country context paper provides an overview of Indonesian women’s participation in the labour market and as entrepreneurs, and identifies key barriers to women’s economic empowerment in Indonesia.
Philippines Country Context Paper
This country context paper provides an overview of women’s participation in the labour market and as entrepreneurs in the Philippines, and identifies key barriers to women’s economic empowerment in the Philippines.
International standards on women and work in the Philippines
This report provides an overview of the international standards on women and work, and explores to what extent they have been implemented in the Philippines.