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APEC Women and the Economy Dashboard 2021

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)




Impact Investing Workplace Gender Equality

APEC Women and the Economy Dashboard 2021

APEC Women and the Economy Dashboard 2021

The APEC Women and the Economy Dashboard by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) provides a snapshot of the status of women in APEC. The report looks at a set of indicators over recent years, which allows measurement of the progress of women’s participation in economic-related activities and women’s inclusion in several aspects of life.

The Dashboard is comprised of 95 indicators, classified in five areas previously identified as priorities by the APEC Policy Partnership on Women and the Economy:

  1. access to capital and assets;
  2. access to markets;
  3. skills, capacity-building and health;
  4. leadership, voice and agency; and
  5. innovation and technology.

The Dashboard includes credible, up-to-date metrics aligning with the APEC Policy Partnership on Women and the Economy priorities, so policymakers can have a clear picture of gaps and opportunities. The Dashboard supports gender integration across APEC. Findings could assist APEC Working Groups and Committees to integrate gender perspectives into their work.

The indicators are drawn from a range of international data sources, including the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Labor Organization, the World Economic Forum, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the World Health Organization, among others.


  • The majority of APEC economies continue to uphold women’s rights to property and inheritance, boosting their access to capital and assets.
  • Increased access, in turn, widen women’s economic opportunities, enabling them to engage in entrepreneurship or invest in financial instruments, among others.
  • In 2020, women and men enjoyed equal ownership rights to immovable property in 19 APEC economies, while 18 members safeguarded equal rights to inherit property for sons and daughters and equal rights to inherit assets for surviving male and female spouses.
  • Women could also use inheritance assets as collateral for bank borrowings to allow them to start or expand a business. Indeed, the OECD-SIGI index on credit access showed a steady improvement in women’s de facto access to bank loans through the years.
  • However, women’s access to credit remains constrained by creditors’ discrimination on the basis of gender. The number of APEC economies that instituted laws to prohibit such discrimination has remained persistently low, moving from 8 to only 9 economies from 2008 to 2020.
  • For the period 2015-2018, only 7 APEC economies have existing laws mandating non-discrimination by creditors on the basis of marital status. These constraints hold back women from engaging in economic and financial undertakings, reducing their capacity to contribute to household income.


  • Table of contents
  • Executive summary
  • APEC Women and the Economy Dashboard, 2021
  • Individual country dashboards
  • Technical notes

This report was originally published on the Asia-Pacific Economic Commission website.

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